Anthropometry is the measurement of the size and proportions of the human body. Many anthropometric measurements are possible, including height, weight, perimeter, length, width, volume surface area structure and composition.
However, the need for anthropometric information and the type of data required varies greatly from one application to another. (medicine, orthosis, retail, shoes, ergonomics, industrial design etc.)
Given that the number of measurements and techniques can be unlimited, general and specific standardization is required for each application in order to compare measurements.
The measurements are defined by 3 planes and 3 axes and are specified internationally as follows:
- Sagittal (front-back) plane
- Coronal (anterior) plane
- Transverse plane
- Lateral (front) axis
- Longitudinal axis
- Sagittal (front-back axis)
When tell of ideal body sizes, firstly, the measures recommended by experts in terms of health should be taken as basis.
- 45 + 2.3 * (in height / inch – 60) to determine ideal body size for women
- 50.5 + 2.3 * (ideal length / inch – 60) for ideal body sizes in men
These formulas give an idea about the ideal weight of the person. In addition to this, the rate of fat in the body is between 13-20% in men and between 15 and 23% in women is ideal for health.
Another ideal body size determination formula is the body mass index.
- Body mass index = kg (cm) / height (m2)
- Waist to hip ratio = Waist circumference / Hip circumference
- Waist to chest ratio = Waist circumference / Chest circumference
According to the result from the body mass index calculation,
- Under 18 and under ideal weight,
- Ideal weight between 18 and 24
- 25 to 29 overweight
- 30 and above are considered obese.
Also, if the waist to hip ratio is greater than 0.80 in women and 1.0 in men, the person is at risk. In which regions the fat is collected in the body, it is directly related to the diseases caught. In people with apple-type body, fat accumulates in the upper parts of the body, and in people with pear-type body, fat is collected in the lower parts of the body. The waist circumference, which is 93 cm in men and 81 cm in women, is interpreted by experts as danger signals.